I. Freshwater Aquaculture-Tilapia Farming
The culture systems of freshwater aquaculture are mainly ponds, ex-tin mining pools, cages and tanks. The use of ex-tin mining pools for freshwater fish farming is unique to Malaysia. The major freshwater fish species are tilapias, catfishes and carps. Tilapia, as an easily farmed fish and cheap but high-quality animal protein supplier, has gained most popularity. There are strong global demand for tilapia products from United States, EU and Middle East countries. At the same time, the demand for tilapia feed grows rapidly.
1.1 Tilapia feed production and market trend
1.1.1 Tilapia feed production and the proper tilapia fish feed machine
The tilapia feed mainly depends on trash feed, formulated feed, poultry industry by-products and other agricultural by-products. There are commercial tilapia feed, supplemental and farm-made tilapia feed. There are four main types of commercial tilapia feeds are available in Malaysia: pre-starter feeds, starter feeds, grower feeds and finisher feeds. All tilapia feeds used in Malaysia are produces locally.
18.104.22.168 Suitable fish feed machine for quality commercial tilapia feed pellet production
Commercial tilapia feeds are mostly extruded floating feeds, and there are still some small and medium sized farms who use sinking fish feed pellets, and the sinking fish feed pellets are cheaper. For production of floating tilapia feed pellets, there are two types of fish feed machine, namely dry type fish feed extruder and wet type fish feed extruder. Dry type fish feed extruder is cheaper than wet type fish feed extruder while the extruded fish feed quality made by wet type fish feed extruder is better than that made by dry type fish feed extruder. Therefore wet type fish feed extruder is mostly chosen by large and medium scale feed enterprises for commercial tilapia fish feed production.
22.214.171.124 Suitable fish feed extruder for farm use tilapia feed pellet making
Farm-made feeds are not a major feed input in tilapia farms in Malaysia. They are made and used as supplement to commercial tilapia feed by small and medium sized tilapia farmers. In order to reduce feed production cost, farmers can choose dry type fish feed extruder to make own tilapia feed from local feed ingredients. Or if they want to make sinking fish feed only, flat die feed pellet machine is another choice for them.
1.1.2 Fish feed ingredients for fish feed pellet making machines
Local fish feed ingredients in Malaysia for making fish feed by fish feed pellet machine are rice bran, wheat bran, palm oil kernel, soybean meal, copra cake, fish meal, torula yeast, grass meal, molasses, shrimp head waste, poultry intestines, animal carcasses and kitchen waste. The main protein sources in tilapia feeds produced in Malaysia are soybean meal and other oilseed meals. Wheat and corn flour and their by-products are the main carbohydrate sources. Maize, rice bran, sorghum, tapioca chips, meat meal, fish meal, leaf meal, groundnut cake and sesame cake are the main imported feed ingredients in Malaysia.
In the view of the critical need to use alternative feed ingredients in tilapia feed in Malaysia, several researches show that oil palm industry and poultry industry have large potential to supply much needed local feed ingredients, especially the palm oil industry. Palm oil is the most fractionated oil in the world, and various palm oil fractions have been successfully evaluated in fish feed formulations, including tilapia feeds.
1.1.3 Tilapia feed market trends
In Malaysia, feed costs contributes a large part to the cost of tilapia farming, approximately 63%. Therefore relatively high prices for commercial feed in Malaysia compel many small farms and even some large farms to turn to local resources. Most Malaysia fish farms have cooking facilities for cooking ingredients such as poultry offal, restaurant waste, beans, peas, copra meal, palm oil cakes, and other agricultural and livestock byproducts. Some have fish feed machine for processing the concoction into fish feed pellets, and as a comprehensive nutritious fish food, pelleted fish food is favored by more and more fish farms.
On the other hand, self-sufficiency in tilapia feed production is crucial for the local tilapia farming industry; a survey conducted by the GenoMar company and Trapia Malaysia Sdn Bhdand- a major tilapia production company showed that commercial extruded feeds are preferred by the majority of tilapia farmers in Malaysia. Thus micro-and small feed making enterprises are encouraged to process locally available resources like crop and livestock byproducts to ensure the supply of low cost tilapia feed without compromising its quality. The key for realizing this aim is to purchase suitable fish feed extruder and reliable extruded fish feed machine supplier with technical support.
II. Ornamental Fish Business in Indonesia
2.1 Enormous potential for the development of ornamental fish industry
Ornamental fish industry is the fastest growing agricultural sector in Malaysia. In Malaysia, ornamental fish trade started in the 1950’s within the southern state of Johor initially, the activity was mainly limited to the collection of fish from the wild for subsequent distribution to Singapore and began to export fish to Europe in the late 1940’s and now Malaysia ornamental fish production is mainly for export. Petential areas are mainly in Johor, Perak, Selangor, P.Pinang, Melaka, N.Sembilan and Pahang.
Today, there are more than 400 farms and most of the farms are family operated; 90% of these produce ornamental fishes and main species are freshwater fish. Malaysia has high potential for further expansion of the ornamental fish industry and the government provides various support and fiscal incentives to promote the development of the ornamental fish industry.
2.2 High demand of ornamental fish feed made by fish feed pellet machine
With the large quantity of ornamental fish being produced, the requirement of fish feed is also large. In Malaysia, although there are farms which produce natural aquarium fish feed, the number and output are still small. Therefore, commercial ornamental fish feed production plays an important role and the ornamental fish feed machine for commercial fish feed plant is the key for the feed production.
Today, the most consumed commercial fish feed is extruded fish feed pellets made by fish feed extruder. Feed ingredients,such as fish meal, vegetable proteins, grain, etc are ground and mixed, and then extruded through the holes in a metal plate of fish feed machine to form feed pellets of the required length. The diameter of the die holes sets the fish feed pellet diameter, which ranges from 0.9mm to 12mm. The fish feed pellets discharged from the fish feed pellet making machine are then dried and added oil or other nutritious liquid if necessary. Fish feed pellets produced by fish feed pellet mill take advantages over other fish feed types like frozen fish feed, live fish food and flakes. Fish feed pellets are easy to care for fish and can be stored for much longer period of time without worrying about it going bad; fish feed pellets have richer and more comprehensive nutrition; reduce the water pollution due to its high density.